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Java Programming Language

Java is also among the most popular languages for machine learning and data science applications. Its robustness, ease of use, cross-platform capabilities and security make Java the language of choice for internet solutions in many enterprise shops. To enable the OSGI framework as a dynamic and distributed co-simulation framework, a software architecture needs to be developed.

langage java

The project went ahead under the name green and the language was based on an old model of UCSD Pascal, which makes it possible to generate interpretive code. OpenJDK is another notable Java SE implementation that is licensed under the GNU GPL. The implementation started when Sun began releasing the Java source code under the GPL. As of Java SE 7, OpenJDK is the official Java reference implementation. Swing is a graphical user interface library for the Java SE platform. It is possible to specify a different look and feel through the pluggable look and feel system of Swing.

JSP technology allows Web developers to rapidly develop and easily maintain, information-rich, dynamic Web pages that leverage existing business systems. It also enables rapid development of Web-based applications that are platform independent. JSP technology separates the user interface from content generation enabling designers to change the overall page layout without altering the underlying dynamic content.

On May 8, 2007, Sun finished the process, making all of its JVM’s core code available under free software/open-source distribution terms, aside from a small portion of code to which Sun did not hold the copyright. In 1997, Sun Microsystems approached the ISO/IEC JTC 1 standards body and later the Ecma International to formalize Java, but it soon withdrew from the process. Java remains a de facto standard, controlled through the Java Community Process. At one time, Sun made most of its Java implementations available without charge, despite their proprietary software status.

Tutorials and Programmer’s Guides

Java is a high-level, class-based, object-oriented programming language that is designed to have as few implementation dependencies as possible. It is a general-purpose programming language intended to let programmers write once, run anywhere , meaning that compiled Java code can run on all platforms that support Java without the need to recompile. Java applications are typically compiled to bytecode that can run on any Java virtual machine regardless of the underlying computer architecture.

langage java

Official Java tutorial – Java documentation is one of the best programming language documentation. Platform-independent Java is essential to Java EE, and an even more rigorous validation is required to certify an implementation. It is a micro platform that is dedicated to mobile applications. An application that runs on the server side and creates a dynamic page is called a web application.

One design goal of Java is portability, which means that programs written for the Java platform must run similarly on any combination of hardware and operating system with adequate run time support. This is achieved by compiling the Java language code to an intermediate representation called Java bytecode, instead of directly to architecture-specific machine code. Java bytecode instructions are analogous to machine code, but they are intended to be executed by a virtual machine written specifically for the host hardware. End-users commonly use a Java Runtime Environment installed on their device for standalone Java applications or a web browser for Java applets. Java is a widely used object-oriented programming language and software platform that runs on billions of devices, including notebook computers, mobile devices, gaming consoles, medical devices and many others. The rules and syntax of Java are based on the C and C++ languages.


When compared with C++, Java codes are generally more maintainable because Java does not allow many things which may lead to bad/inefficient programming if used incorrectly. So we cannot pass large objects (like we can do in C++) to functions, we always pass references in Java. One more example, since there are no pointers, bad memory access is also not possible. But Java does not provide low-level programming functionalities like pointers.

When ants discover a new source of food, the food in their memory will be revitalized as per the rules of the transition. This framework includes the common elements that are present in the metaheuristic to permit algorithm designers to reuse common behaviors. Through Isula, optimization problems can be solved with ACO in a few code lines. For solving a problem via an ACO algorithm, we require a colony of agents , a graph demonstrating the problem statement, and a pheromone data structure for allowing communication between these agents.

The expert group that defined JABWT consisted of 18 companies and three individuals. The API was defined as an optional package for J2ME devices based on CLDC. This helps to make our Java code more flexible and reusable.

  • Java servlet technology provides Web developers with a simple, consistent mechanism for extending the functionality of a Web server and for accessing existing business systems.
  • JavaFX is a software platform for creating and delivering desktop applications, as well as rich web applications that can run across a wide variety of devices.
  • This did not prevent Oracle from filing a lawsuit against Google shortly after that for using Java inside the Android SDK .
  • It is possible to specify a different look and feel through the pluggable look and feel system of Swing.
  • Examples of standalone application are Media player, antivirus, etc.

JavaScript support is required for full functionality of this page. The string “Hello World!” is automatically converted to a String object by the compiler. Java Platform, 8 skills you need to be a good Python developer Micro Edition – targeting environments with limited resources. Java software runs on everything from laptops to data centers, game consoles to scientific supercomputers.

Polymorphism in Java

Java uses an automatic garbage collector to manage memory in the object lifecycle. The programmer determines when objects are created, and the Java runtime is responsible for recovering the memory once objects are no longer in use. Once no references to an object remain, the unreachable memory becomes eligible to be freed automatically by the garbage collector. If methods for a non-existent object are called, a null pointer exception is thrown. In the area of programming tools, Java offers a range of IDEs.

It is an enterprise platform that is mainly used to develop web and enterprise applications. It includes topics like Servlet, JSP, Web Services, EJB, JPA, etc. Java also wins points with strategic planners for its ability to adapt to new use cases. For example, Java is widely considered to be an ideal platform for the Internet of Things . The typical IoT application interconnects a large number of disparate devices, a task that is greatly simplified by the fact that billions of devices run Java.

Our core Java programming tutorial is designed for students and working professionals. Java is an object-oriented, class-based, concurrent, secured and general-purpose computer-programming language. However, it would be a mistake to view Java only in terms of legacy applications. The Java language forms the heart of theAndroid operating system, which powers by far the largest share of the world’s smartphones.

Java is a general-purpose language with a wide range of applications. It’s used for developing mobile and desktop applications, big data processing, embedded systems, and so on. Java has been one of the most popular programming languages for many years. The Java™ Programming Language is a general-purpose, concurrent, strongly typed, class-based object-oriented language. It is normally compiled to the bytecode instruction set and binary format defined in the Java Virtual Machine Specification. Java is on the wane, at least according to one outfit that keeps on eye on the ever-changing world of computer programming languages.

Cours JAVA : Les classes et objets fondamentales

Generics allow compile-time type checking without having to create many container classes, each containing almost identical code. In addition to enabling more efficient code, certain runtime exceptions are prevented from occurring, by issuing compile-time errors. If Java prevented all runtime type errors from occurring, it would be type safe. All source files must be named after the public class they contain, appending the suffix .java, for example, It must first be compiled into bytecode, using a Java compiler, producing a file with the .class suffix (HelloWorldApp.class, in this case).

Managers can also draw on contract resources to supplement in-house staff for specific tasks without adding headcount. It’s also important to understand that Java is much different from JavaScript. Javascript does not need to be compiled, while Java code does need to be compiled. Also, Javascript only runs on web browsers while Java can be run anywhere. Here, r is an individual ant’s state of being exhibited by its position; whereas, e denotes pixels that ants bypass through. I denote the pixels present in the image undergoing segmentation.

It was released in May 1995 as a core component of Sun Microsystems’ Java platform. The original and reference implementation Java compilers, virtual machines, and class libraries were originally released by Sun under proprietary licenses. As of May 2007, in compliance with the specifications of the Java Community Process, Sun had relicensed most of its Java technologies under the GPL-2.0-only license. The core philosophy behind its creation—interoperability across disparate devices—remains the strongest argument for favoring Java for new enterprise applications. Java’s object-oriented architecture allows you to create modular programs and reusable code, shortening development cycles and extending the longevity of enterprise applications.

Java application servers are web containers for Java components, XML, and web services, which interact with databases and provide dynamic web content. In this paper, we propose Moka, a runtime support for object-oriented parallel programming. Moka offers a set of simple, flexible, and lightweight mechanisms; it is usable both for developing applications and as a portable platform to support more advanced parallel object models on top of it. Java was originally developed by James Gosling at Sun Microsystems.

Our Java programming tutorial is designed to help beginners and professionals. Discover the advantages of Android and learn about key resources that can help you improve results. The large talent pool of Java developers constitutes a compelling reason to base major software initiatives on Java. When staffing managers post job openings for Java developers, they can expect to receive many qualified resumes and fill those positions relatively quickly.

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The course of asthma during pregnancy in a recent, multicase–control study on respiratory health


Over the years it has been widely stated that approximately one-third of asthmatic women experience worsening of the disease during pregnancy. However, the literature has not been reviewed systematically and the meta-analytic reviews include old studies. This study aimed to examine whether the prevalence of worsening asthma during pregnancy is still consistent with prior estimate or it has been reduced.


A detailed Clinical Questionnaire on respiratory symptoms, medical history, medication, use of services, occupation, social status, home environment and lifestyle was administered to random samples of the Italian population in the frame of the Gene Environment Interactions in Respiratory Diseases (GEIRD) study. Only clinical data belong to 2.606 subjects that completed the clinical stage of the GEIRD study, were used for the present study.


Out of 1.351 women, 284 self-reported asthma and 92 of them had at least one pregnancy. When we considered the asthma course during pregnancy, we found that 16 women worsened, 31 remained unchanged, 25 improved. Seven women had not the same course in the different pregnancies and 13 did not know. The starting age of ICS use almost overlaps with that of asthma onset in women with worsening asthma during pregnancy (19 years ± 1.4), unlike the other women who started to use ICS much later (30.3 years ± 12). In addition, the worsening of asthma was more frequent in women with an older age of onset of asthma (18 years ± 9 vs 13 years ± 10). Among women who completed the ACT during the clinical interview, the 50% of women who experienced worsening asthma during pregnancy (6/12) had an ACT score below 20.


Asthma was observed to worsen during pregnancy in a percentage much lower to that generally reported in all the previous studies. There is still room in clinical practice to further reduce worsening of asthma during pregnancy by improving asthma control, with a more structured approach to asthma education and management prepregnancy.


  • A. Grosso
  • F. Locatelli,
  • E. Gini,
  • F. Albicini,
  • C. Tirelli,
  • I. Cerveri and
  • A. G. Corsico
Allergy, Asthma & Clinical Immunology
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Prevalence of food allergens sensitization and food allergies in a group of allergic Honduran children


Food allergy is a public health problem that has increased in the last decade. Despite the increasing rates in children, quality data on the burden of these diseases is lacking particularly in developing countries. Honduras has no studies in pediatric patients.


The objective of this research was to identify the most common sensitization patterns to food through epicutaneous skin testing and food allergy rates in children and their correlation with common allergic diseases in a group of patients from Hospital of Pediatrics Maria.


Cross-sectional retrospective, descriptive study in which records and database of all allergic patients in the immunology outpatient clinic from Hospital of Pediatrics Maria were reviewed between the periods of January 2015 through June 2016.


A total of 365 children were analyzed, the age of participants were in the range from 1 to 18 years, with an average of 9.8 years. Sensitization to food allergens were found in 23, and 58.3% were poly-sensitized. The most common food allergens that patients were sensitized to: milk 9.0%, eggs 6.9%, peanut 4.9% and pork meat 4.4%. Food allergy was confirmed via oral food challenged in 9.3% of the patients. The most frequent food allergies found were: cow’s milk allergy 6%, hen’s egg allergy 5.2% and wheat allergy 1.9%.


Milk and egg were the most common a food allergens found in the population studied. Most of the patients were found to be poly-sensitized. The frequent food allergies confirmed via oral food challenge were cow’s milk allergy, hen’s egg allergy and wheat allergy.


Allergy, Asthma & Clinical Immunology